Is Titanium-Zirconium Alloy Better for Oral Implants?

Titanium-zirconium alloy has emerged as a promising alternative to pure titanium for oral implants, offering several advantages due to its enhanced mechanical properties and biocompatibility. This alloy, typically comprising about 13-15% zirconium with the balance being titanium, combines the desirable characteristics of both metals, making it an attractive material for dental implantology.

Advantages of Titanium-Zirconium Alloy over Pure Titanium:

  1. Increased Strength: The addition of zirconium to titanium increases the alloy’s tensile strength, making it stronger than pure titanium. This increased strength allows for the production of narrower implants with the same or higher resistance to mechanical stress, which is particularly beneficial in situations with limited bone volume.
  2. High Biocompatibility: Both titanium and zirconium are known for their excellent biocompatibility, crucial for dental implants. The titanium-zirconium alloy maintains this property, ensuring good osseointegration and minimal risk of allergic reactions.
  3. Enhanced Durability: The alloy’s improved mechanical properties contribute to a longer lifespan of the implants under the dynamic and static loads of mastication, potentially reducing the risk of implant failure.
  4. Corrosion Resistance: Like pure titanium, the titanium-zirconium alloy exhibits excellent corrosion resistance, which is vital for maintaining the integrity of the implant in the corrosive environment of the human body.

Clinical Applications:

The titanium-zirconium alloy is especially beneficial for patients with limited bone density or when small-diameter implants are needed due to anatomical constraints. Its increased strength compared to pure titanium allows for the use of narrower implants without compromising performance, making it an ideal choice for challenging dental restorations.

Research and Outcomes of Titanium-Zirconium Alloy:

  1. Background: Titanium (Ti) is a preferred material for orthopedic and dental implants due to its excellent bone integration and corrosion resistance. Recent studies suggest a titanium-zirconium (TiZr) alloy, with 13–17% zirconium, may offer superior mechanical properties for high-load-bearing implants, but research is limited.
  2. Objective: To compare the mechanical properties and microstructures of TiZr alloy and commercially pure titanium (Ti).
  3. Methods: Pure Ti and TiZr alloy discs were analyzed through nanoindentation, electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD).
  4. Results: The TiZr alloy demonstrated a significantly lower elastic modulus and higher hardness compared to pure Ti. Microstructural analysis revealed the presence of the alpha phase in both materials, with TiZr displaying a finer grain size.
  5. Conclusion: The TiZr alloy’s lower elastic modulus, increased hardness, and refined microstructure suggest it is more suitable for high-load-bearing implants than pure Ti. This could lead to better long-term outcomes for implants due to improved mechanical performance and potential for enhanced biological response. [1]


While pure titanium remains a gold standard in dental implantology, the titanium-zirconium alloy offers significant advantages, particularly in terms of strength and suitability for specific clinical scenarios. Its use as an alternative to pure titanium for oral implants represents an advancement in dental materials, providing options for more challenging cases and potentially improving patient outcomes.


However, the choice between pure titanium and titanium-zirconium alloy should be based on specific patient needs, anatomical considerations, and clinical judgment. For more information, please visit Advanced Refractory Metals (ARM).




[1] Sharma A, Waddell JN, Li KC, A Sharma L, Prior DJ, Duncan WJ. Is titanium-zirconium alloy a better alternative to pure titanium for oral implant? Composition, mechanical properties, and microstructure analysis. Saudi Dent J. 2021 Nov;33(7):546-553. doi: 10.1016/j.sdentj.2020.08.009. Epub 2020 Aug 29. PMID: 34803299; PMCID: PMC8589587.


Zirconium Metals in Different Forms

Zirconium, with its notable properties like excellent corrosion resistance, high melting point, and exceptional durability, is crafted into various forms to cater to specific industry needs. Each form offers unique characteristics making it suitable for particular applications. Here’s a closer look at the different forms of zirconium metals and their distinct uses:

Related Video:

Zirconium: An Extraordinary Metal from Stanford Advanced Materials

1. Zirconium Plates

Zirconium plates and sheets find widespread application in the aerospace industry, valued for their resistance to high temperatures and corrosion. Manufacturers also prefer them for crafting chemical processing equipment, thanks to their superior resilience against acids and alkalis.

2. Zirconium Pipes

Zirconium pipes and tubes play a crucial role in the nuclear industry. They act as cladding for nuclear fuel rods because they absorb neutrons at a low rate. Their resistance to corrosion also makes them perfect for chemical plant piping systems.

3. Zirconium Bars

Manufacturers use them in surgical devices and medical implants, capitalizing on Zr’s biocompatibility. The automotive industry also relies on them for components that must endure harsh conditions.

4.Zirconium Strips

Zirconium strips are widely used in electronics for their conductivity and corrosion resistance, and in aerospace for their heat resistance. Zr strips also find applications in medical devices due to zirconium’s biocompatibility. Additionally, their ability to be anodized makes them popular in decorative applications.

5. Other Zirconium Products

Zirconium Sponge serves as a primary source for producing high-purity zirconium and its alloys. This transitional form plays a crucial role in the metallurgical process to obtain the metal in its pure or alloyed state.

Zirconium Meshes find use in filtration and sieving, especially in corrosive environments. Their applications also extend to aerospace and medical implants, taking advantage of zirconium’s structural integrity and biocompatibility.

Zirconium Crucibles offer exceptional resistance to high temperatures and corrosion, making them ideal for use in laboratory experiments and industrial processes that require melting or holding highly reactive materials. Their durability and ability to withstand aggressive chemical environments without contamination make them a preferred choice for applications in the chemical analysis, metallurgy, and materials science fields.

Advanced Refractory Metals (ARM) is a leading supplier of a wide range of zirconium products. Their offerings likely include a variety of forms such as zirconium plates, zirconium pipes, zirconium strips, etc. Each product is designed to leverage zirconium’s notable properties, such as high temperature and corrosion resistance, low neutron absorption rate, biocompatibility, and structural integrity. For more details, please check the table below.

Table 1. Zirconium Metals in Different Forms

Zirconium Product Applications Attributes
Zirconium Plates Aerospace industry, chemical processing equipment High temperature and corrosion resistance, resistance against acids and alkalis
Zirconium Pipes Nuclear industry as cladding for fuel rods, chemical plant piping systems Low neutron absorption rate, corrosion resistance
Zirconium Bars Surgical devices and medical implants, automotive components Biocompatibility, durability under harsh conditions
Zirconium Strips Electronics, aerospace, medical devices Conductivity, corrosion resistance, heat resistance
Zirconium Sponge Producing high-purity zirconium and alloys, metallurgical processes High-purity production, crucial in metallurgical processes
Zirconium Meshes Filtration and sieving in corrosive environments, aerospace, and medical implants Structural integrity, biocompatibility, suitable for corrosive environments
Zirconium Crucibles Laboratory experiments and industrial processes for melting/holding reactive materials, chemical analysis, metallurgy, materials science High temperature and corrosion resistance, durable

The versatility of zirconium in its various forms allows for its widespread use across multiple industries, including aerospace, nuclear energy, medical, chemical processing, and beyond. This adaptability stems from its remarkable physical and chemical properties, which engineers and scientists continue to leverage in developing advanced technologies and solutions.

Coatings and Surface Treatments for Zirconium Alloys


Coatings and surface treatments for zirconium alloys are essential for enhancing their corrosion resistance, wear resistance, and biocompatibility. They can also improve performance characteristics for specific applications. Besides, zirconium alloys benefit from additional surface treatments to extend their lifespan and functionality, especially in more aggressive environments or when additional properties are needed.


This article explores various coatings and surface treatments designed for zirconium alloys. Hope that you can learn about their applications and benefits.

1.    Anodizing for Zirconium Alloys

Anodizing is a process that electrochemically alters a metal surface to produce a decorative, robust, and corrosion-resistant anodic oxide layer, effectively enhancing the metal’s natural oxide surface layer.

The Anodizing Process [1]
It is most commonly applied to aluminum, but other metals, including zirconium and titanium, can also be anodized. The anodized metal has an increased resistance to corrosion and wear, and it can accept vibrant colors during the process.


These metals have become a popular choice for both protective and aesthetic purposes in various industries, such as automotive, aerospace, consumer electronics, and construction.

1.    Thermal Spraying

Thermal spraying is a coating process where melted (or heated) materials are sprayed onto a surface. The coating material, in the form of powder or wire, is heated to a molten or semi-molten state and accelerated towards the target substrate. Thermal spraying creates a strong bond to the surface upon cooling.

The Thermal Spraying Process [2]
This technique is used to apply coatings for a variety of purposes, including protection against wear, corrosion, and heat, and to restore or increase the surface dimensions of components. Thermal spraying encompasses several methods, such as plasma spraying, flame spraying, arc spraying, and high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spraying.


Each is suitable for different materials and applications ranging from aerospace and automotive to biomedical and electronics.

1.    Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) and Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD)

Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) and Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) are two advanced techniques for applying thin film coatings onto various substrates.


  • CVD:

CVD involves chemical reactions between gaseous precursors and the substrate surface. It results in the deposition of a solid material. This method is excellent for coatings that require high purity and uniform thickness, even on complex geometries. It’s useful for semiconductor devices, corrosion-resistant coatings, and high-performance tool coatings.


  • PVD:

PVD, on the other hand, physically transfers material from a source to the substrate in a vacuum environment. Techniques under PVD include sputtering and evaporation, allowing for the deposition of metals, alloys, and ceramic coatings. PVD coatings are notable for their high density, excellent adhesion, and uniformity, and they are ideal for aerospace components, medical implants, and cutting tools.

2.    Electroplating

Electroplating can apply a metal coating, such as nickel or gold, onto zirconium alloys. This process can improve the alloy’s appearance, corrosion resistance, and electrical conductivity. Electroplating is often used in electronic components, decorative items, and applications requiring enhanced conductivity.

3.    Passivation

Passivation involves treating the zirconium alloy with a chemical solution, usually an acid, to remove surface contaminants and enhance the naturally occurring oxide layer’s protective qualities. This process improves corrosion resistance by making the surface more passive and less likely to react with its environment. Passivation’s common uses are in the chemical processing industry and in medical device manufacturing.

4.    Sol-Gel Coatings

The sol-gel process can create thin, uniform ceramic coatings on zirconium alloys. These coatings can provide excellent chemical stability, corrosion resistance, and thermal protection. Sol-gel coatings are versatile and can be tailored to include various functional materials for specific applications, including optics, electronics, and biomedical devices.


The following table succinctly captures the essence, features, and typical applications of each method. You can check this clear guide to select the appropriate coating process for various requirements.

Methods Definition Features Applications
Anodizing An electrochemical process enhancing the natural oxide layer for a decorative, durable finish. Increases corrosion and wear resistance; accepts vibrant colors. Automotive, aerospace, consumer electronics, and construction.
Thermal Spraying Coating process spraying melted materials onto a surface. Provides protection against wear, corrosion, and heat; restores/increases dimensions. Aerospace, automotive, biomedical, and electronics.
Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Chemical reactions between gaseous precursors and the substrate, depositing a solid material. High purity, uniform thickness, suitable for complex geometries. Semiconductor devices, corrosion-resistant coatings, and tool coatings.
Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) Transfers material from a source to the substrate in a vacuum. High density, excellent adhesion, and uniformity. Aerospace components, medical implants, and cutting tools.
Electroplating Applies a metal coating, like nickel or gold, onto substrates. Improves appearance, corrosion resistance, and electrical conductivity. Electronic components, decorative items, and enhanced conductivity applications.
Passivation Treating the alloy with a chemical solution to remove contaminants and enhance oxide layer protection. Improves corrosion resistance; makes the surface less reactive. Chemical processing industry and medical device manufacturing.
Sol-Gel Coatings Creates thin, uniform ceramic coatings. Offers chemical stability, corrosion resistance, and thermal protection. Optics, electronics, and biomedical devices.



Coatings and surface treatments for zirconium alloys are critical for enhancing their properties and expanding their application range. By selecting appropriate treatments, it’s possible to significantly improve the performance of zirconium alloys in various industrial, medical, and technological applications.


As technology advances, new coating techniques and materials will likely emerge, further enhancing the capabilities of zirconium alloys. For more information related to zirconium alloys, please check Advanced Refractory Metals (ARM).




[1] Mihajlović, Dragana & Cvijović-Alagić, Ivana & Dimic, Ivana & Djokic, Veljko & Rakin, Marko. (2016). Anodization of Ti-based materials for biomedical applications: A review. Metallurgical and Materials Engineering. 22. 129-143. 10.30544/209.

[2] Ahmad, Zaki & Khan, Asad & Farooq, Robina & Saif, Tahir & Mastoi, Naila. (2016). Mechanism of Corrosion and Erosion Resistance of Plasma‐ Sprayed Nanostructured Coatings. 10.5772/64316.

Corrosion Resistance of Zirconium Strip in Industrial Applications


For centuries, the quest for substances that combine strength with exceptional resistance to corrosion has led to significant advancements. Among these materials, the zirconium strip stands out for its superior corrosion resistance. It marks a significant leap forward in extending the longevity and reliability of equipment across various industries.

Zirconium Strips

This article delves into the corrosion resistance of zirconium strips. It also focuses on zirconium’s applications and the future outlook of this remarkable material.

Unveiling the Properties of Zirconium Strip

Zirconium is a lustrous, grey-white, strong transition metal. It is renowned for its corrosion resistance. When fashioned into strips, it offers a combination of durability, flexibility, and a formidable barrier against corrosive agents.


This resistance is primarily due to the formation of a thin, stable oxide layer on its surface when exposed to oxygen. That oxide layer effectively seals the metal from further attack by most acids and alkalis.

Industrial Applications: A Spectrum of Uses

The unique properties of the zirconium strip have led to its widespread adoption across multiple sectors. Here are some key areas where its impact is most pronounced:

–Chemical Processing Industry

In environments where exposure to harsh chemicals is a daily occurrence, equipment longevity is a constant challenge.


Zirconium strips are useful in the construction of pipes, valves, and reactors. Their resistance to corrosion significantly reduces maintenance costs and prevents contamination of sensitive reactions.

Related reading: Zirconium Strip in Chemical Processing and Petrochemicals

–Nuclear Reactors

Zirconium comes with a low neutron absorption cross-section. It has become ideal for nuclear reactors, where it is used in cladding fuel rods. The corrosion-resistant nature of the zirconium strip ensures the integrity of the reactor’s core components and enhances safety and efficiency.

–Medical Devices

The strip also stands out for its biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. It is suitable for various medical implants and devices. Its use in this field ensures that the implants remain safe and effective over time, without reacting adversely with bodily fluids.

–Aerospace and Defense

In aerospace and defense, Zr’s high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance are invaluable. Components made from zirconium strips can withstand the extreme conditions encountered in these applications. Such uses range from the corrosive nature of aviation fuels to the high-temperature environments of jet engines.

Advantages over Other Materials

Zirconium strip offers several advantages over traditional corrosion-resistant materials like stainless steel and titanium.


–Corrosion Resistance: Zirconium vs. Stainless Steel

  • Zirconium: It exhibits superior corrosion resistance in most acidic environments, particularly in hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, and other aggressive media where stainless steel would typically fail.
  • Stainless Steel: While stainless steel is known for its corrosion resistance, its performance heavily depends on the alloy composition and the environment it’s exposed to. In chloride-containing environments or highly acidic conditions, certain grades of stainless steel can suffer from pitting, crevice corrosion, or stress corrosion cracking.

–Corrosion Resistance: Zirconium vs. Titanium

  • Zirconium: Similar to titanium, zirconium’s corrosion resistance is attributed to a protective oxide layer that forms on the surface. However, zirconium’s layer is even more effective in certain acidic conditions. It offers better protection than titanium in environments where titanium might be prone to corrosion.
  • Titanium: Titanium’s excellent corrosion resistance comes from a passive oxide film that forms on its surface. It performs exceptionally well in seawater and chlorinated environments, as well as in the presence of most acids. However, at high temperatures or in the presence of certain acids (like hydrofluoric acid or concentrated sulfuric acid), titanium’s corrosion resistance can be compromised.

The Future of Zirconium Strip

The increasing demand for materials that can ensure the longevity and reliability of industrial equipment in corrosive environments is driving research into enhancing the properties of zirconium strips.

  • Innovations in alloying techniques aim at improving its strength and corrosion resistance even further.
  • Moreover, the development of cost-effective manufacturing processes is expected to make zirconium strips more accessible for a wider array of industries, from renewable energy to water treatment.


Zirconium strips offer industries a solution to one of their most persistent challenges. With impressive corrosion resistance, it gains applications in chemical processing, nuclear reactors, medical devices, and aerospace.


As research continues to unlock new potentials for this material, the Zr strip is set to become an even more integral component of industrial applications in the years to come. It promises a future where materials are not only stronger but also more resilient against the relentless forces of corrosion. For more information, please check Advanced Refractory Metals (ARM).